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The influence of Scandinavian Revival can be seen in the works of Danish directors like Thomas Vinterberg and Lars von Trier, as well as countless other filmmakers around the world. Over time, wartime film became more nuanced – a point proven by the 1966 masterwork The Battle of Algiers. The Wizard of Oz wasn’t the first film to use Technicolor, but it was credited with bringing color to the masses.

In United States, they are mostly related to ones with large U.S. involvement such as World wars and Vietnam, whereas in other countries, movies related to wars in other historical periods are considered war movies. Movies seem to get bigger and bigger every year but the development of computer-generated-imagery and compositing techniques has given filmmakers the technology to create vast worlds in limited spaces. Still, there’s a lot of money to be made – a point perhaps best proven by the rise of the Chinese film industry. In 2020, China overtook North America as the world’s biggest box-office market, per THR.

The history of film chronicles the development of a visual art form created using film technologies that began in the late 19th century. However, the commercial, public screening of ten of the Lumière brothers’ short films in Paris on 28 December 1895, can be regarded as the breakthrough of projected cinematographic motion pictures. The first decade of motion pictures saw film move from a novelty to an established mass entertainment industry, with film production companies and studios established all over the world. Further terminology is used to distinguish various forms and media used in the film industry. “Motion pictures” and “moving pictures” are frequently used terms for film and movie productions specifically intended for theatrical exhibition, such as, for instance, Star Wars. A reproduction based on such is called a “transfer.” After the advent of theatrical film as an industry, the television industry began using videotape as a recording medium.

Although spectators may sometimes expect exact realism in details of dress or locale, just as often they expect the film to escape from the real world and make them exercise their imagination, a demand made by great works of art in all forms. Independent filmmaking often takes place outside Hollywood, or other major studio systems. An independent film (or indie film) is a film initially produced without financing or distribution from a major film studio. Creative, business and technological reasons have all contributed to the growth of the indie film scene in the late 20th and early 21st century.

We could spend 100 pages talking about Russian cinema – but that’s not the focus of this article. We already talked about Soviet Montage Theory, so let’s skip ahead to post World War II Soviet cinema. Swedish, Danish, and Finnish have played an important role in cinema for more than 100 years. The Scandinavian Revival – or renaissance of Scandinavian-centric films from the 1940s-1950s – put the films of Sweden, Denmark, and Finland in front of the world stage.


Check out a video on Hengdian, China’s largest film studio from South China Morning Report. During this era, writers like Woody Allen employed themes of existentialist cinema found in the French New Wave and Italian Neorealism (among other movements). Directors like Martin Scorsese utilized advanced framing techniques pioneered by masters of the pre-war era. The Paramount Case opened the door for international films and independent theaters. It also gave businesses more freedom to show movies outside of the MPPDA ratings system.

  • (1955), Around the World in 80 Days (1956), South Pacific (1958) and Cleopatra (1963) plus many more.
  • At the same time, the system’s commercial regimentation and focus on glamorous escapism discouraged daring and ambition beyond a certain degree, a prime example being the brief but still legendary directing career of the iconoclastic Erich von Stroheim in the late teens and the 1920s.
  • Film is used for a range of goals, including education and propaganda due its ability to effectively intercultural dialogue.
  • Home theatre systems became increasingly sophisticated, as did some of the special edition DVDs designed to be shown on them.

The films Chariots of Fire, Gandhi, The Killing Fields and A Room with a View appealed to a “middlebrow” audience which was increasingly being ignored by the major Hollywood studios. While the films of the 1970s had helped to define modern blockbuster motion pictures, the way “Hollywood” released its films would now change. Films, for the most part, would premiere in a wider number of theatres, although, to this day, some films still premiere using the route of the limited/roadshow release system. Against some expectations, the rise of the multiplex cinema did not allow less mainstream films to be shown, but simply allowed the major blockbusters to be given an even greater number of screenings. However, films that had been overlooked in cinemas were increasingly being given a second chance on home video. This trend began with films directed by Manmohan Desai and starring Amitabh Bachchan, who remains one of the most popular film stars in South Asia.

Once a stylized niche genre, the thriller film has gone so mainstream that it might be time to change the genre’s name to Summer Blockbuster Event. For a full exploration of the history and development of the Western—and what you need to know to make your own—see our field guide to the Western. The Western is rich film tradition that has its roots in the American fascination with its Western frontier. These stories have their roots in the period of American expansionism, when fantasies of the “untamed” West thrilled Americans living in ever-expanding cities along the eastern seaboard.

The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots photographed from different distances and angles. Other techniques such as camera movement were developed as effective ways to tell a story with film. Until sound film became commercially practical in the late 1920s, motion pictures were a purely visual art, but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination.